Arxiu d'etiquetes: apes

Koko, the gorilla who can talk with her hands

The origin of language is one of the unknowns that creates more discussion among anthropologists. Are we the only animals with a language with grammar? Did our ancestors speak? Do animals communicate only by imitating simple sounds? This article will attempt to address these issues and introduce Koko, the gorilla who learned sign language.

CAN ANIMALS SPEAK ?

Clearly most living beings communicate in some way, either through visual, olfactory or chemical, acoustic signals… The clearest case we have close is barking, meowing… but also plants can communicate.

You have probably ever heard a parrot or parakeet say words, even the crows are great imitators. But it is just that, an imitation of few words. They are unable to make sentences or use the words they know to express new concepts. Or have a conversation. Sometimes scientists have educated baby apes as humans, in an attempt to teach them to speak. They never made it.

WHAT IS NECESSARY TO SPEAK ?

Given the depth of the subject, we can summarize that to talk is essential to have the necessary cognitive capabilities and a physical vocal apparatus that enables control of entry and exit of air in a certain way . Since some animals like whales, birds or apes have high cognitive abilities, why they do not start talking the same way as us? We begin to understand their way of communicating, so it is possible that some possess some sort of grammar, or a language such as dolphins or some birds. Or maybe we should clarify what is language. In this post we will focus on the case of primates, especially gorillas and chimpanzees.

VOCAL APPARATUS

The larynx contains the vocal cords. Notice the difference between a human and a chimpanzee:

Vocal apparatus of a chimpanzee and a human. Unknown author. Photo taken from UOC

Humans have the vocal cords in a lower postion, and we have a shortest oral and nasal cavity. To produce vocals clearly, the oral communication core, the larynx must be in a low position. That is why chimpanzees, cannot talk due to their physical limitations.

 

Model with the different positions of the vocal apparatus necessary to pronounce vocals. Photo by Mireia Querol, CosmoCaixa, Barcelona.

To investigate whether our ancestors could talk, studies focus mainly on the morphology of the hyoid bone, the position of the pharynx, the base of the skull and the brain impressions inside the skull. Recent research with Skull 5 of the Sima de los Huesos belonging to a Neanderthal, along with other studies of other fossils, suggests that 500,000 years ago they had a vocal apparatus like ours. If Neanderthals had the physical conditions did they speak?

BRAIN CAPACITY

Humans are the mammals with the largest brains relative to our bodies. The intelligence of a chimpanzee is compared to 4 years old child. If they can not speak for physical limitations, could they do it otherwise?

Cerebro humano señalando las áreas de Broca y Wernicke, responsables del lenguaje. Foto de dominio público tomada de NIH
Brain pointing out Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, responsible for language. Homo habilis and possessed. Photo of public domain taken from NIH

According to a study published in Nature , the FOXP2 gene appears to be responsible for our ability to control of precises movement that allows speech. People with inactive copies of this gene, have severe speech and language problems. The FOXP2 gene is different in only two amino acids between chimps and humans, and apparently is responsible that neither they nor the rest of vertebrates can talk. This difference, this mutation is believed to have appeared 500,000 years ago. Svante Pääbo and his team discovered that this gene was already like ours in Neanderthals. If this is true, added to what we have seen in the previous section, we can almost ensure that Neanderthals could speak.

TEACHING TO TALK TO OTHER APES

Since they can not talk, scientists have taught apes to communicate with humans by lexigrams (drawings respresentan words) and sign language. Washoe was the first non-human ape to learn the American Sign Language (ASL). It was a chimpanzee, learned about 350 words and taught his son some Loulis. Other chimpanzees were capable of it, but the most fascinating is the discovery of this communication behavior of wild chimpanzees signs (obviously, chimpanzees own signs, not the ASL). The bonobo Kanzhi communicated with lexigrams, and Koko has become a famous gorilla thanks to her mastery of ASL.

KOKO THE GORILLA

Koko (short for Hanabiko,  in Japanese, “Fireworks”) is a western lowland gorilla. Gorillas are the largest apes and hominids nowadays, with up to 180 Kg weight in males.

Koko en 2010. Foto de Ron Cohn, Koko.org.
Koko in 2010. Photo by Ron Cohn, Koko.org.

 

After chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas are the most genetically similar to humans (we share more than 98% DNA). There are two species of gorillas:

  • Western Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) includes two subspecies, the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). It is critically endangered according to IUCN .
  • Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei): includes the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) and the eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri). It is endangered according to IUCN .

Distribución gorila, bonobo, chimpance, orangutan, distribution, gorilla, chimpanzee,
Distribution of great apes. Map shared from Great Apes Survival Partnership

 

KOKO’S LEARNING

Koko was born in 1971 in the San Francisco Zoo, and currently lives in the Gorilla Foundation in Redwood City, California. Since she was 6 months old Dr. Francine (Penny) Patterson (then PhD student) and Dr. Ron Cohn taught her American Sign Language (ASL). Other gorillas that were attached to the project were Michael (in 1976) and Ndume (1991).

Penny teaching Koko (right) and Michael ASL. Photo taken from Koko.org
Penny teaching Koko (right) and Michael ASL. Photo taken from Koko.org

Since then, Koko has learned up to 1000 ASL signs and understands approximately 2,000 words in English. It is even capable of combining different signs to explain concepts if seh don’t know the word. Michael and Ndume also managed to communicate through signs: Ndume learned some from Koko, which could prove Koko’s case is not unique but gestural communication is intrinsic in gorillas.

In this video Penny asks what Koko would like to do with their spare time. She answers that she would like to have a baby and thanks Penny when she tells her that they are trying:

OTHER SKILLS OF KOKO

Koko, living in a humanized environment, performs acts by imitation, according to researchers, she has not been forced to do so. She look at books, movies, makes paintings, looks her in the mirror, take care of pets… even plays the flute. This is especially important because it is capable of puckering in the proper position and control breathing. It can also simulate cough, which requires control over the larynx. Contrary to what was thought, control over the airways and therefore on future capabilities of our ancestors speaking, could have appeared millions sooner than previously thought.

Koko video playing flutes and harmonica (Koko.org):

Another subject worthy of study is the artistic ability of Koko and Michael. If other apes have created tools and language, it is art what separates us from them and our ancestors? Since Koko can communicate with a common language to us and puts names to her creations, is this some symbolic capacity? The line between apes and other H. sapiens, and therefore also between H. sapiens and other Homo, is getting thinner.

Kokopainting a picture. Photo from Koko.org
Kokopainting a picture. Photo from Koko.org

 

PROJECT KOKO MILESTONES

Finally, we leave you with the most important milestones after 40 years of study with Koko:

    • Gorillas can learn ASL (1,000 signs) ant do it faster during childhood, and know how to modulate these signs to give them different emphasis
    • They understand spoken English (2000 words)
    • Koko is not a unique case, as Michael and Ndume testify
    • Inventive: they can expand language combining signs learned with other signs (eg, “bracelet finger” to express “ring”), or by adding own gestures .
    • Emotions: they express a variety of emotions, from the simplest to the most complex. It is known Koko reaction after the death of one of its kittens, Robin Williams, or a sad scene in film.
    • Hypothesis of empathy: the gorillas may have empathy, looking at how she treats persons or animals .
    • Use of grammatical language
    • Other ways to communicate: including creation of drawings, photographs, pointing to words, letters with phrases …
    • Self-identity: Koko is defined in front of a mirror as “fine animal / person gorilla”. Watch the video:

REFERENCES

MIREIA QUEROL ALL YOU NEED IS BIOLOGY

Reasons to have captive primates (or maybe not!)

These days there is a lot of controversy in Spain because of the TV program Vaya Fauna” in Telecinco, in which captive non-domestic animals show their abilities. Leaving aside the training methods that suffer these animals, like in a previous post by Marc Arenas, Reasons to watch marine mammals in captivity (or maybe not), in this post we will talk about the consequences of keeping primates in captivity, especially great apes, and what is in your hands to preserve your closest relatives, all of them endangered.

MONKEYS SEEM HAPPY INTERACTING WITH US

Surely you’ve ever been to the zoo and have observed human behavior mockery to chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. People laughing, pounding his chest, imitating vocalizations. They are responded by chimpanzees, so we believe is an imitation game.

Humans have a tendency to humanize everything, that is, to perceive the reactions of others as human beings, which is not usually related. In the primate communication, the look is very powerful, sometimes intimidating. Who does not look the other way in the elevator when we are with a neighbor? This also happens with gorillas: staring look into their eyes is to them an aggression, so you can suppose the stress of feeling threatened by hundreds of visitors at a zoo watching at you every day. What we interpret as a smile, in which the animal bares his teeth, is actually a gesture of fear or tension. What we interpret as a game or insult, like throwing feces against the glass, it is also a sign of discomfort and stress.

chimpancé riendo, chimpancé miedo, asustado, estres
This chimpanzee is not laughing, he’s scared. Photo: Photos.com

The typical gesture of striking the breast, it is actually a demonstration of strength and health, which can lead to tense situations such as that experienced by this family at the zoo in Omaha when her daughter beat his chest in front of a silverback (male gorilla):

IN ZOOS THE FACILITIES ARE MORE NATURALIZED NOWADAYS

It is true that the trend in zoos is increasingly to mimic the conditions that they could have in nature, with green spaces, logs or ropes to climb, according to species. But primates enjoy these conditions a few hours a day, specifically when zoos are open to the public. At night or in adverse weather conditions, many zoo animals live in cages smaller than the display area without any natural setting.

Most great apes are social and have well-established group hierarchies in nature. In captivity, family groups tend to be artificial because the animals are from different origins, in addition to cases where there is overcrowding (too animals in the same facility) or they are kept isolated in cages with tiny dimensions. In case of conflict within a group, animals do not have enough space to keep their distance and avoid future tensions.

Gorilasbuscando alimento en el Parque Natural de los Volcanes, Ruanda. Foto de Philip Kromer.
Foraging gorillas in the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Picture by Philip Kromer.

They are also deprived of natural behaviors such as foraging. In the case of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), they can travel several kilometers a day searching for food (mainly shoots, but also fruit and some insects) and never sleep two consecutive nights in the same place. Enrichment plans in zoo are essential to occupy their free time available.

Inappropriate behavior of some visitors does the rest (hitting glass, shouts, pictures with flash, food, excessive influx of public ).

IT HAS EDUCATIONAL AND CONSERVATIONAL VALUE

As in the case of marine mammals, investigations in captive primates do not allow reliable conclusions about the biology and behavior of animals due to the artificial conditions in which they live. In zoos, primates are not animals used in performances or in educational visits to the general public, in other centers, the information given about them is poor and biased in favor of the show or simple display of the animal to the public. The reintroduction of primates in the wild is very complex. The captive breeding programs that are implemented increasingly in zoos for conservation reasons, often produce animals for exhibition and not to release into the natural environment, for lack of means or interest.

THEY ARE ADORABLE AS PETS

The fact that an animal may seem to us nice-looking or share more than 90% of genes with us, does not mean that it will have same needs. These needs usually are not known by people who acquire a primate as a pet, causing them health problems both physical and psychological, including death.

Most come from illegal trade, which means that to capture a baby, hunters have to kill several members of its family, especially in the case of great apes that will protect their offspring to death.

The most famous orphan primate was undoubtedly Snowflake, the only albino gorilla known to date. In this case, his entire family was murdered in 1966 by entering banana and coffee plantations in the jungle of Nko, Equatorial Guinea. Snowflake was sold to Jordi Sabater Pi by 15,000 pesetas in Barcelona and was raised in an apartment in the first 11 months. Then was moved to Barcelona Zoo where he became a symbol of the city and lived there the rest of his life.

Copito de nieve, floquet de neu, gorila, snowflake, zoo de barcelona
Snowflake on an inside installation. Photo taken from blog Sigur Rós.

Small primates are also victims of illegal trade, which has increased because of the presence of videos on the Internet about how “adorable” are marmosets or loris (Nycticebus) according to a study published in PLoS ONE. Besides many species are endangered, as we saw in a previous post slow lorises are the only poisonous primate in the world, so they are mutilated without anesthesia (they cut them teeth, claws) before sale, which provoke sometimes deadly infections. The study found only in Indonesia 15,000 loris enter the illegal market per year, not counting those who die before. To that evidence must be added the death of the mother and/or entire families. They are sold with a few months of life, when in the wild spend the first 14 months with its mother, so their emotional and nutritional needs will never be covered.

loris, venta, ilegal, trade
Loris from Sumatra to sell crammed in a cage without food or water, in daylight (they are nocturnal). Photo by The Little Fireface Project.

It is estimated that the illegal trade in wildlife is worth more than 19 billion dollars annually, equivalent or above the illegal trade in drugs and weapons. In addition to pets, many primates living in zoos come from seizures, like Coco gorilla at Barcelona Zoo.

The Primates order is protected by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), so trade is banned or highly regulated. In Spain for example, they can’t be kept in particular installations.

THEY ARE VERY SMART AND CAN DO THINGS LIKE US

Another clear case of humanization is forcing primates to represent situations taking them as natural and easy to learn for them,  like walking upright, cycling and other stunts that are fortunately seen less and less in circuses, movies, commercials or sets of TV.

We have already discussed the origin and living conditions (often unhealthy) of these animals. We won’t go into detail about how they are trained, based on negative reinforcement (deprivation of food, company, beatings, imprisonment…) or stress levels to which they are subjected between spotlights, people and noise. Primatologist Sarah Baeckler conducted a study in 2002 on the status and conditions of these animals. What happens to them when they do not serve to act? They are abandoned, and in lucky cases recovered in sanctuaries or recovery centers, such as Mona Foundation in Catalunya or the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center, the largest sanctuary for chimpanzees in Africa promoted by Dr. Jane Goodall. This video of the emotional release and history of the chimpanzee Wounda by Rebecca Atencio and Jane Goodall went viral:

CONSEQUENCES BEFORE AND AFTER THE FAME”

Chimpanzees are the most commonly apes used for this kind of shows. According to studies, such as the one by the University of Kent (2011), primates end with psychological problems such as:

  • Self harm and mutilation
  • Bone fractures and wounds
  • Psychomotor deficit
  • Malnutrition
  • Development problems
  • Abnormal behaviors such as ingestion of feces and urine
  • Repetitive movements with no function (stereotyping)
  • Decreased gestures to communicate with each other
  • Hyperaggression
  • Social phobia, fear, agoraphobia (phobia of open spaces and agglomerates
  • Apathy
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Despression
  • Inability to its development in conditions of freedom

Campaña "Los animales no son payasos" de Acção Animal and Liga Portuguesa dos Direitos do Animal (LDPA).
“Animals are not clowns” campaign by Acção Animal y Liga Portuguesa dos Direitos do Animal (LDPA).

So they have the same consequences as any human can suffer in the same situation. We share 96.9% of our DNA with orangutans, 98.4% with gorillas, 98.8% with chimpanzees  and 99.9% with other humans.

Rehabilitation and socialization, it is not impossible in some cases, but it takes years and thousands of euros of effort, which does not justify its use in shows or keeping them as pets.

WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR PRIMATE CONSERVATION?

In June 2015, after years of struggle by Jane Goodall and other institutions, captive chimpanzees enjoy the same protection in the wild USA, they are considered endangered. Two chimpanzees have also been recognized as legal persons in court on his compulsory detention. Primatologists agree that the intelligence of a chimpanzee is equivalent to a 4 years old child and the debate is still alive on the inclusion of the great apes on Human Rights. Something is changing in consideration of our closest relatives, but is still clearly insufficient. What it is in your hands?

  • Learn and share with your children, family and acquaintances capabilities and problems of these wonderful animals.
  • Do not buy or accept a primate as a gift or souvenirs made from them, especially if you are traveling to foreign countries where the sale is cheap and easy. You can go to jail.

Un simple llavero o cenicero hecho con la mano de un gorila lleva muchas muertes detrás. Foto de WWF
A simple key ring leads behind many deaths. Photo by WWF

  • Do not attend circuses or give audience to television programs which use animals and participate in campaigns against it.
  • Do not eat primate meat  (bushmeat)
  • Avoid visiting zoos and other institutions that keep primates in captivity for profit.
  • Do not use products tested on animals, especially cosmetics.
  • Do not buy tropical wood or seek FSC certification of sustainable logging.
  • Extend the life of electronic devices, especially mobile phones and recycle it as coltan and cassiterite it is used for manufacturing it.
  • Report illegal wildlife trading
  • Make donations to recovery centers or adopt a chimpanzee, also here
  • Do not use products with palm oil, responsible for causing the deaths of dozens of orangutans daily.

orangutan quemado, aceite de palma, pal oil, palmitate, pongo, deforestacion, muerto
Orangutan (Pongo spp.) (Literally, “man of the forest”) victim of deforestation for palm oil industry. Photo: unknown credit

REFERENCES

MIREIA QUEROL ALL YOU NEED IS BIOLOGY

Hands-free in the Pliocene

In the previous post we discovered the anatomical changes associated with bipedalism in early hominids and the relationship of the selection of this feature with climate change. Is bipedalism a trait that makes us human? What are the advantages over other quadruped animals?

WHAT IS THE PLIOCENE?

Since the origin of our planet, geologists have divided time into different divisions of millions of years: the eons (Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic), which in turn are divided into different eras. The Phanerozoic (from 542 Ma to present) is divided into three eras, from oldest to newest: Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In this link you can see  the major biological milestones for each epoch.

cenozoic
Cenozoic detail. Full image

The Miocene is the time when the hominoids appear, (Proconsul is the most famous genus) and in the Pliocene appears, among others, Australopithecus. Homo sapiens do not appear until the Holocene, a blink in the planet’s history, as they say.

Usually the climate changes that have been happening throughout the history of Earth, represent extinction, diversification and new species, and so does our evolutionary branch: many authors relate climatic fluctuations with milestones of hominins. If you are interested in this interactive you can investigate this issue.

slideshow_plate_tectonics_02
Position of the continents in the Miocene after the collision between the Eurasian and Indica plates. (Photo by The Burgess Shale)

One of these climatic changes (caused by the collision of the Eurasian and Indica tectonic plates,  giving rise to the Himalayas and changing wind currents) was responsible for the disappearance of large tracts of rainforest, giving way to a landscape shrub or savanna. Hominoids who stayed in the forest, led to the current nonhuman apes, while those who occupied the savannatrees mosaic led to hominins, our lineage. What are the advantatges of bipedalism in that landscape?

ADVANTATGES OF BIPEDALISM

  • Handsfree: the two free limbs can be used to transport food and offspring. You can reach fruit trees without stepping on them and later, will allow the manipulation of tools, hunting and cultural events.
  • Less heat: without offering the entire back surface to the sun, and separating the body from the hot ground, it allows cope better with high temperatures and survive with less water.
  • More energy: walking on two legs consumes less energy than walking on four. This allow walking longer distances with less food, which is important in an environment where you have to flee or find food constantly. We have a great strength to walk or run many kilometers compared with quadrupeds.
  • Best visual field: the eyes have a higher position and can detect potential predators over shrubs or drive them away with stones if necessary. It is also easier to spot food sources.
  • Intimidating appearance: upright posture appears to increase body size and can avoid confrontations with certain predators.
  • Better communication: the insertion of the skull with the spine, leaving enough space for the vocal cords allow, over time, the appearance of articulate speech. Although other apes had the same brain capacity to talk, morphologically it is impossible because of the structure of their vocal apparatus.
Algunas ventajas del bipedismo. (Ilustración de Karen Carr Studios)
Some advantatges of bipedalism. (Illustration by Karen Carr Studios)

DISADVANTAGES OF BIPEDALISM

  • Low speed: for short distances, running on two legs is slower than four, in case of an unexpected attack by a predator, the chance to escape decreases.
  • Back pain: the stress that suffers our spine and legs throughout life due to upright posture, is the most likely cause of back pain, knees, hips and feet that suffer a large part of the world population.
  • Birth complications: our birth canal is narrower due to the structure of our pelvis, plus the large size of the skull of the young, it causes more pain and complications in human births compared to other mammalian quadrupeds.
Canal del parto en una mujer (izquierda) y una chimpancé (derecha). Foto tomada de Jose Mª Bermúdez de Castro
Birth canal in a woman (left) and a chimpanzee (right). (Photo taken of Jose Mª Bermúdez de Castro)

Thus, despite the disadvantages, in a warm environment, rather arid and with few trees for shelter from predators, who survived were bipedal hominoids. We consider our bipedalism as a trait that makes us human, as it is unique among animals: only birds are fully bipedal -like some extinguished dinosaurs, and except the penguin -with clumsy gait, their spine is not perpendicular to the ground, like ours.

REFERENCES

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Who are the hominids?

Today’s article is dedicated to primates. We will talk about some of its key features, the classification of the living species and we will discover who the hominids and hominans are.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMATES

Primates are an order of placental mammals that appeared about 65 million years ago in the tropical rainforest. There are currently over 400 living species, most of them arboreal. Since there are no single trait that defines them, they are difficult to classify; so we have to consider a set of features, which are:

  • Complex visual system: with frontally placed eyes, their vision is stereoscopic, allowing them to perceive the distance and depth with great accuracy. Most species can see in color.
  • High mobility of the shoulder: allows an easy arm movement in all directions. Hands and feet have five fingers and opposable thumb (at least in hands) allowing them to grasp and manipulate objects with precision. Although some have claws, most have flat nails and all (except some orangutans) have a flat nail on the big toe.
  • Torso and tail: several primates rest and move with an erect torso. Except apes, in some cases they have a prehensile tail, and can use it as a fifth limb.
  • Brain size: besides some species of toothed whales, some primates have, in relation to the body, the largest brain of all mammals.
  • Social organization: only orangutans, some lemurs and galagos are solitary, other primates are organized in complex social groups.

Gorila comiendo (Gorilla sp.) donde se aprecian algunas de las características descritas (Foto: pixabay.com)
Gorilla eating (Gorilla sp.) where whe can see some of the characteristics. Photo: pixabay.com

 

CLASSIFICATION

The relationships among the different groups of primates were not clearly understood until relatively recently, so the commonly used terms are somewhat confused (mokeys, apes…). Modern cladistic classifies primates in two suborders, Haplorrhini (“dry-nosed primates”) and Strepsirhini (“wet-nosed primates“). A possible classification would be:

Taxonomia primates english
Primates taxonomy. Clic to enlarge. Created by Mireia Querol based in an image taken of humanorigins.si.edu.

Traditionally primates are classified into three groups: prosimians, monkeys and apes.

PROSIMIANS

Prosimians are the oldest primate group. They are distributed throughout Southeast Asia and Africa marginal islands. Prosimians include lemurs, lorises, galagosindris, the aye-aye and tarsiers. They share the following characteristics:

  • Claws instead of nails (they have at least a fingernail)
  • Long snout with wet nose. They have the best sense of smell among primates
  • More lateral orientation of the eyes than other primates. These are big and have good nocturnal vision
  • Mobile pinna
  • Minor brain proportion than other primates

Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis). (Foto: Frans Lanting)
Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Photo: Frans Lanting

 

Tarser de Filipines (Foto: Kok Leng Yeo)
Philippines tarsier (Carlito syrichta). (Photo: Kok Leng Yeo)

OLD AND NEW WORLD MONKEYS

The New World monkeys are distributed throughout Central and South America. They have a long, often prehensile tail. The muzzle is flat and the nostrils are situated in the side. They are completely arboreal. The best known representatives are marmosets, spider monkeys, capuchins, and sakis.

Sakí cariblanco macho (Pithecia pithecia). (Foto: Charles Miller).
Male of White-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia). Photo: Charles Miller

 

The Old World monkeys are distributed throughout Africa and Asia. Usually they are bigger than New World monkeys. The nostrils are directed downward or forward. The Old World monkeys cover a wide range of species, such as macaques, baboons, mandrills, mangabeis, drills, colobus, proboscis monkeys, langurs

Langur dorado (Trachypithecus geei). (Foto: Wikimedia).
Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei). Photo: Wikimedia

 

APES

Apes are divided into two families: Hylobatidae (gibbons and siamangs) and Hominidae (orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans). They are distributed throughout West and Central Africa and South and Southeast Asia, except humans: we are distributed all over the planet and habitats. Apes have a flat face, with the nostrils downwards and an anatomy that facilitates upright posture and materials handling, including the creation and use of tools in some species.

Bonobo (Pan paniscus). (Foto: Pierre Fidenci)
Bonobo (Pan paniscus). Photo: Pierre Fidenci

In conclusion, hominids are human beings (Homo sapiens) together with orangutans (two species: Pongo pymaeus and Pongo abelii), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscusand gorillas (two species: Gorilla gorilla y Gorilla beringei), because we all belong to the family Hominidae. The term also refers to all fossil species of this family, and therefore our ancestors, that we will discuss in future articles on human evolution. However, to refer exclusively to our evolutionary branch (including H. sapiens) the used term is hominans or hominas, which refers to a tribe (Hominini) of the Hominidae family.

REFERENCES

If you enjoyed this article, please share it on social networks to spread it. The aim of the blog, after all, is to spread science and reach as many people as possible.

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