Arxiu d'etiquetes: phosphorus

Biology and extraterrestrial life

Frequently we can read on the news newly discovered planets that could harbor extraterrestrial life. Often we have new information about Mars, other worlds with water and extremely resistant living beings, like tardigrades. But is life possible outside the Earth? What is life? What is needed to sustain life? Astrobiology tries to answer this questions. Do you want to find out more?

ASTROBIOLOGY AND EXOBIOLOGY

Astrobiology is a set of different scientific disciplines that studies the existence of life in the universe. To achieve this it combines knowledge of biology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, ecology, geography, geology, planetary science and molecular biology. Within astrobiology, exobiology studies the possibilities of life outside our planet. It should not be confused with ufology, a pseudoscience. Astrobiology tries to answer such exciting questions as:
– What is life?
– How did life appear on Earth?
– How does life evolve, and what is its adaptability?
– What is the future of life on Earth and other places?
– Is there life in other worlds?

No, neither is this a Martian nor is it astrobiology. Source: Quo

WHAT IS LIFE?

Although it seems like a banal question, life is not easy to define. Apparently, we can recognize if something is alive or not if it can perform certain functions and has certain features. Living beings have vital functions:

  • Nutrition: they can obtain energy from the environment to grow, survive and reproduce.
  • Reproduction: they can create copies similar to themselves.
  • Interaction: they can perceive what is going on the environment and inside themselves.
  • Organization: living beings are formed by one or more cells
  • Variation: variability between individuals allows species to evolve.

Problems begin when with beings that don’t have all the characteristics. The most classic example would be viruses: they are unable to reproduce on their own and lack cellular structure. Another example would be erythrocytes (red blood cells) of mammals, cells without genetic material or mitochondria.

Microphotography of the Ebola virus under electronic microscope (Public photo of the CDC)

WHAT IS NEEDED FOR LIFE TO EXIST?

We only know one type of life: the terrestrial one. This is why astrobiologists need to take it as a reference to know what to look for elsewhere. Could there be other forms of life different than terrestrial? Maybe, but it would be almost impossible to recognize them. If you do not know what you are looking for, you may find it but do not realize it.

It is considered that in order for life to appear and develop, it is necessary:

  • A liquid where chemical reactions take place: on Earth, it is water.
  • An element with ease to form stable compounds: on Earth, it is carbon.
  • A source of energy: on Earth, it is the Sun.

We are looking for planets or satellites with these characteristics, although other possibilities such as liquid methane (in the case of Titan, a satellite of Saturn), ethane, sulfuric acid, ammonia or acetic acid as solvent are being considered. Life-based on other elements such as silicon, it is a recurring topic in science fiction stories.

Artistic representation of Titan’s methane lakes. Credit: Steven Hobbs

WHAT IS NEEDED TO SUSTAIN LIFE?

The celestial body has to fulfill a series of characteristics so that life can be sustained:

  • An abundance of chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen to form organic compounds.
  • The planet/satellite has to be within the habitability area of its star (orbiting at a distance that allows a temperature suitable for life).

planet, star, habitable zone
Habitability area (green) according to the temperature of the star. Red: too hot, blue: too cold. Source: NASA / Kepler / D Mission. Berry

  • A source of energy enough to maintain the temperature and allow the formation of complex molecules.
  • An appropriate gravity to keep an atmosphere and not crush the living beings of the planet.
  • A magnetic field to divert the radiation incompatible with life.

The Earth’s magnetic field protects life from the solar wind. Source: ESA

In our Solar System, the candidates that possibly fulfill these characteristics are Mars, Europe and Ganymede (satellites of Jupiter), Enceladus and Titan (satellites of Saturn) and Triton (satellite of Neptune).

WHY CARBON?

Living beings are formed by cells, and if we reduce the scale, by molecules, and atoms (like all matter). Why is life-based on carbon?

In fact, in the constitution of organisms 26 elements are involved, but 95% of living matter consists of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S). We can imagine them as the “bricks of life”: by combining these building blocks, we can obtain complex organisms. These bricks can be joined to others by covalent bonds. Metaphorically, atoms can be imagined as spheres with hands which can be grasped by other hands. For example, the main energy source molecule for all living things is ATP (Adenosine triphosphate, C10H16N5O13P3).

enlaces químcos, moléculas, sulphur, phosphorus, hidrogen, oxigen, carbon, nitrogen, chemical bond
Schematic representation of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus atoms and their valences (possible bonds). Own production based on figure 6.3 of “Life in space” (see references)

The candidate element to sustain life would have to be an abundant element able to form a great amount of bonds with itself and with other elements. The 5 most abundant elements in the universe:

  • Helium: does not form compounds
  • Hydrogen and oxygen: they have 1 and 2 hands: they can only form very simple compounds
  • Nitrogen: can bind to 3 atoms, but no chains of several nitrogen atoms are known.
  • Carbon: it has 4 hands so it can be strongly bonded to other carbons with single, double, or triple bonds. This allows it to form long chains and three-dimensional structures and can still join to other atoms. This versatility allows constructing molecules chemically active and complex, just the complexity that makes life possible.

DNA chemical structure, double helix
DNA chemical structure where we can see the importance of carbon bonding to form rings and chains. Source

Could there be life in another place based on a different atom?

ALTERNATIVES TO CARBON

SILICON EXTRATERRESTRIALS

Since establishing 4 links is so useful, silicon is the first candidate for biologists and science fiction writers, even if it is not as abundant as carbon. Silicon (Si) can also form 4 bonds and is abundant on rocky planets like Earth, but …

  • The Si-Si bond is quite weak. In an aqueous medium, life based on silicon would not be sustained for a long time as many compounds dissolve in it, although it could be possible in another medium, such as liquid nitrogen (Bains, W.).
  • It is very reactive. Silane, for example (one silicon atom bonded to 4 hydrogens) spontaneously ignites at room temperature.
  • It is solid at most temperatures. Although it can easily form structures with oxygen (silica or silicon dioxide), the result is almost always a mineral (quartz): too simple and only reacts molten at 1000ºC.
  • It does not form chains or networks with itself, due to its greater size compared to carbon. Sometimes it forms long chains with oxygen (silicones), that perhaps could be joined to other groups to form complex molecules. The alien of the movie Alien has silicone tissues. The beings formed by silicones would be more resistant, which leads to speculate what kind of extreme conditions they could withstand.

Horta, a silicon-based form of life featured in the science fiction series Star Trek. Source

NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS EXTRATERRESTRIALS

Let’s look at some characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus:

  • Nitrogen: can only form 3 bonds with other molecules and is poorly reactive.
  • Phosphorus: its bonds are weak and multiple bonds uncommon, although it can form long chains. But it is too reactive.

By combining the two, stable molecules could be obtained, but the beings based on nitrogen and phosphorus would have other problems: the nitrogen compounds, from which they would have to feed, are not abundant in planets and the biological cycle would not be energetically favorable.

BORON, SULFUR AND ARSENIC EXTRATERRESTRIALS

The most unlikely biochemistries could be based on these elements:

  • Boron: can form long chains and bind to other elements such as nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon
  • Sulfur: can form long chains, but because of its size is highly reactive and unstable.
  • Arsenic: is too large to form stable compounds, although its chemical properties are similar to those of phosphorus.

In 2010, the journal Science published a scientific research in which researchers claimed to have discovered a bacterium (GFAJ-1) capable of living only in arsenic, lethal to any living being. It broke the paradigm of biology by not using phosphorus (remember ATP and DNA structure) and opened up new study lines for astrobiology. In 2012, two independent investigations refuted the theory of researcher Felisa Wolfe-Simon and his team. Phosphorus remains essential for organisms to live and develop on Earth.

GFAJ-1 bacterium. Source

At the moment, these hypothetical biochemistries are nothing more than speculations, so astrobiologists are still looking for carbon-based life, although we already know that science never ceases to amaze us. Although we could identify life based on other elements if we ever find extraterrestrial life (or vice versa) the revolution will be so great that it won’t matter if they are carbon-based beings.

REFERENCES

 

MIREIA QUEROL ALL YOU NEED IS BIOLOGY

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Lack of phosphorus puts global food security at risk

Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for life on Earth. Essential structures for any organism like DNA or RNA contain this element, and plants can not perform photosynthesis without it. Because of this, crops require huge amounts of phosphorus to meet the standards of efficiency and productivity needed to feed an ever-growing human population. However, this is a limiting and finite resource, and the predictions are not promising: reserves will be depleted in about 100-150 years. That will lead to significant geopolitical problems still unimaginable because, apart from the ephemeral nature of this resource, there is the fact that 90% of stocks are in the hands of only 6 countries. Conflict is served.

INTRODUCTION

Anyone who has ever had to buy fertilizer will recognize this sequence: N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). They are the most used nutrients for gardening and plant production in general. Without them, plants do not grow or can not develop enough to persist in the long term. Of the three main nutrients, potassium is the most abundant in the earth’s crust (representing approximately 2.4% of the earth’s surface by weight), especially in ancient seabed and lakebeds, as well as being the most available for plants. On the other hand, nitrogen in its gaseous form is extremely abundant (78.1% of the air around us is molecular nitrogen), but not their molecules in solid form, which are usually scarce due to their high mobility throughout the soil. However, thanks to the Haber-Bosch process (which lead researchers to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry), solid nitrogen (in the form of ammonia) was produced from gaseous nitrogen, leading to a high availability of this inorganic fertilizer.

haber_bosch_in_lab
Friz Haber (right) with a scientist who manipulates the Haber-Bosch method. This way of extracting the atmospheric nitrogen and turning it into ammonia is considered, by many scientists and historians, as the most important invention of the modern history. Without it, the world would not have been able to afford even half of the current food demand. Source: el juicio de fritz haber.

THE PHOSPHORUS CASE

Phosphorus, however, is the third party in discordance. Essential for life, it is the main component of DNA, RNA, ATP (the energy used in cellular processes) and phospholipids, which cover cell membranes. It is present in the bones and is involved in almost any animal biological process. In addition, it is imperative for plant growth: without phosphate, photosynthesis can not be carried out. The biggest problem with phosphorus is that it is not free in nature. Plants and, in general, all organisms, satisfy their phosphorus needs thanks, mainly, to another living organism: animals, from plants and, these, from animal residues or their corpses, which release the Phosphate in the decomposition process. In fact, the most important fertilizers until the arrival of inorganic fertilizers, already in the twentieth century, were the excrements and urine of farm animals, which contain a large amount of phosphorus, in addition to the other elements already mentioned. However, as a result of the Haber-Bosch invention and the increase in food demand as a result of population growth, phosphorus deposits, which are in the form of minerals and are actually scarce in the earth’s crust, began to be exploited.

100_6906
Guano accumulated on an islet of Peru. Guano, together with excrements and urine from farm animals, was an important source of phosphorus until the 20th century. This substrate, formed from continuous depositions of seabirds, seals and bats, is still very much appreciated even today, especially in organic farming. Source: Hiding in Honduras.

 

A SCARCE, IRREPLACEABLE, AND BAD-USED RESOURCE

Phosphorus is an irreplaceable and non-synthesizable resource. Reserves are finite and are being wasted, since much of the fertilizer applied is not assimilated by plants and, through the soil, ends up in the sea or in the lakes, where they unbalance the ecosystems. Being such a scarce resource, it is often the limiting resource in most ecosystems. For that reason, an overfertilization of phosphorus is often exploited by autotrophic algae to grow uncontrollably, which, in many cases, causes blooms that can generate important animal, economic and environmental losses.

mar-menor
Extension of the vegetation of the Mar Menor (Murcia) in 2014 and 2016. 85% of the vegetation has died in less than two years, due to strong phenomena of eutrophication, in which phosphorus has played a key role. The excess of nutrients allows algae proliferation, which end up causing difficulties of light infiltration which, in turn, preclude phothosynthesis, causing the death of plants. Source: El País.

6 COUNTRIES CONTROL WORLDWIDE PRODUCTION

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has estimated the world’s reserves of phosphorus at 71 billion tonnes. 90% of these are in the hands of 6 countries: Morocco (where, according to the USGS, 75% of the world’s mineral reserves are found there), China, Algeria, Syria, South Africa and Jordan. However, United States and, specially, China (accounting for 47% of world phosphate production), are the countries that are currently extracting more phosphorus from their deposits. This production has been increasing in the last years, and it will go to more in the coming decades. According to this recent article by Nature, it will be necessary to double, by the year 2050, the use of phosphate fertilizers to meet the demand of food, in a world where there will already be 9,000 million humans. But, by then, more than half of the phosphorus in the reservoirs will have been used. This study warned of the possibility that we were reaching the peak of phosphorus production, although new calculations estimate their peak around the year 2040. In any case, if we continue with the current production, the reserves will be depleted in no more than 100 years.

phosphate-rock-reserves
World phosphate rock reserves by country. Morocco capitalizes on reserves, followed by China and Algeria. Around 90% of the world’s phosphorus reserves are found in Africa, which predicts a future in which this continent will play a very important role in the negotiations for this finite resource. Source: WRForum.

GEOPOLITICS ENTERS INTO THE SCENE

A symptom of the potential shortage of phosphorus in the not too distant future is the rise in phosphorus prices that has been observed recently due to rising demand. Between 2007 and 2008 the price of phosphate tons increased threefold from 2005 values, and cost up to 9 times more than in the 1970s. In addition, it has been estimated that by 2035 phosphorus demand will exceed supply, what will cause an increased prices and, with them, political tensions. No stranger to it, many countries are working on ensuring a supply of this valuable resource for a few more decades. China, for example, which is now the largest producer (what does not mean the holder of the largest reserves) has begun to impose 135% tariffs on its exports. The United States, on the other hand, has signed a bilateral free trade agreement with Morocco, which gives it the rights to exploit their long-term phosphate deposits. Taking into account that most of Morocco’s phosphate reserves are in Western Sahara (a region that has fought for its independence since its occupation in 1975), it is not surprising that the United States has always supported Morocco in the United Nations Security Council, vetoing any proposal in favor of the independence of Western Sahara.

a2
Rise of prices of different phosphate minerals. Prices are expected to rise in the coming decades, as phosphate deposits are depleted. Source: USDA.

cordell
Estimation of the evolution of phosphoric rock production and the moment when it will reach the peak of production. Many scientists agree that reserves will last between 60 and 130 years. Source: Cordell et al., 2009.

THE SOLUTION IS TO GO BACK TO THE ROOTS

According to the latest estimates, phosphorus deposits will be depleted, affecting crops around the world. This decline in food production will have a global repercussion, especially in the poorest countries, the most susceptible to a possible decrease in food production. Failing to establish measures to reduce global population, the lack of phosphorus combined with climate change will lead to tense relations between many countries, leading to geopolitical conflicts on a global scale.

7920453668_1a42c7b136_k
According to Metson et al. (2016) a plant-based diet would help to reduce the phosphorus demand. According to their calculations, a vegetarian person requires approximately 4 kg of phosphate rock per year, almost 3 times less than a meat-based diet, which consumes about 11.8 kg of phosphorus per year. Source: Jeremy Keith.

For that reason, the main solution is to use phosphorus in a more rational way and to recycle it as much as possible. Today, around 80% of phosphorus is lost between the exploitation of the mineral, its transport and its application in the fields, which requires us to make a more sustainable use of this resource. However, the world food security will only be able to mantain its production by recycling. The main proposal would be to return to the beginning: to collect human excrets and urine, generated in cities and towns, to recover all that phosphorus that, in other conditions, would end up in the aquatic environment. Approximately 100% of the phosphorus consumed by mankind through food is excreted in excrets and urine. Collecting it would be like a double-edged sword: on the one hand we would satisfy the phosphorus demand of the crops and, on the other hand, we would avoid the eutrofization of waters due to the excess of these nutrients. Furthermore, a change in diet, prioritizing vegetables instead of meat, would reduce the demand of phosphorus between 20 and 45%, according to Cordell et al. (2009). Other solutions include the recovering of the use of manure in more rural and less-technological areas and promoting the composting of food waste in households, factories and commercial establishments. Finally, a waste from wastewater treatment plants, called struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) could help to fertilize the fields in an effectively and cleanly way.

1280px-struvit_guelleaufbereitung
Struvite ore, like the one from the image, is obtained spontaneously in sewage treatment plants. Although it causes obstruction problems in the water treatment plant pipes due to its crystallization, it could be used as a clean fertilization system that would provide phosphorus, nitrogen and magnesium. Source: Creative Commons.

The madness begun at the beginning of the 20th century with the exploitation of the phosphoric rock to produce food in great quantity is almost over, and this requires us to adapt our crops and, perhaps, our way of life, to a future that will have to drink a lot of the proceedings carried out in the past. There is a need for a change of mentality, centered on a reduction of the world population and on a major sustainability of natural resources, if we really want to guarantee a world where no one is hungry.

REFERENCES

The humans have done it again: the Anthropocene, another shameful achievement for mankind

Science books have to be modified again. Joining other famous geological epochs of the Cambrian, Jurassic or Pleistocene another one must be added from now: the Anthropocene. On August 2016 a group of experts confirmed what everyone suspected: mankind have been so interventionist in terrestrial processes that the natural cycle have changed irretrievably. We have already suffering the consequences, and the human footprint on our planet will be present until after our demise

INTRODUCTION

The history of the modern man, Homo sapiens sapiens, was not easy in the beginning. It is believed that we appeared on the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago in Africa. In those days humans were already good hunters, but also good preys, and although the species was thriving and spreading across the planet, this was done slowly and always influenced by severe climate changes. It took 100,000 years to leave Africa and anothers 80,000 to reach America. During all that time and until almost the present day, humans being was at the mercy of the Earth and its whims, which decided at will the fate of our ancestors. However, the Ice Age ended, the Holocene began and thereby unprecedented technological advancement. The industrial revolution definitely transformed humans and the way they interact with the world, which suffered the devastating consequences of an ambitious and unaware species about their enormous global influence.

mamut
Humans have been nomadic most of their existence, with a strong dependence on environmental conditions that conditioned their prey. With the agriculture and lifestock the first villages were created, leading to the modern style. Source: Return of Kings.

WHAT IS A GEOLOGICAL TIME AND HOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO ENTER AND LEAVE IT?

At first glance, it may seem a mere syntactical question or a whim of geologists. However, designate a geological time is important when defining long periods of time sharing similar environmental conditions. Normally, a geological period usually lasts no less than 2 million years, and the fossil record is used to find out a major discontinuity in the typical pattern of the biota of that actual period. Therefore, an epoch tend to finish when an abrupt climate change occur (the Pleistocene ends with the last of the great glaciations), leading to changes in the biota (the meteorite that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs caused the end of the Cretaceous period). However, these abrupt changes must be occur globally and in a short space of time to really be considered as a different geological epoch.

geological-time-scale
Earth is divided into periods whichare divided into geological epochs. These periods are marked by relatively stable and / or with a characteristic biota. These epochs are usually finished by events that involve drastic changes for living organisms on a global scale. Source: philipmarshall.net.

THE ANTHROPOCENE

The term is not new (it was used for the first time in the mid XIX century during the industrial revolution) but regained importance in early 2000, thanks to Paul Crutzen. This chemist, together with other colleagues, discovered the compounds that were destroying the ozone layer, which makes him to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In his speech, he had special interest in stressing that the Holocene “was over forever” to make way for the Anthropocene, the age of humans. His article in Nature about the Anthropocene was a reference for many scientists working on projects about environmental problems in the Anthropocene epoche. On August 29, 2016, the expert group of the Anthropocene voted at the International Geological Congress (IGC) to formally establish the Anthropocene as a new geological epoch.

Grinding Shop
The industrial revolution changed the course of Earth forever. Vast amounts of fossil fuels were burned and their products emitted into the atmosphere. The production system took a turn, giving priority to production and thereby to make unprecedented use of the planet’s resources. In the photo, British workers in a factory of agricultural products in 1928. Source: Daily mail.

BUT, WHY ARE WE IN THE ANTHROPOCENE?

As we mentioned before, to change the geological epoch it has to be evident that environmental conditions are changing on a global scale. And that is what is happening since the early 50s of the last century, date in which researchers have officially marked the beginning of the Anthropocene. In this Science article, researchers from around the world gathered geological evidence showing with certainty that mankind has changed the planet severely and it should already talk about another geological era. The researchers also pointed to the products of the many atomic tests of the 50s as the starting point of the Anthropocene.

mushroom-cloud-of-first-hydrogen-bomb-test
The nuclear tests of the 50s, like this one in which the first hydrogen bomb (Ivy Mike) was tested, caused the release of large amounts of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. These particles were settled and that has allowed researchers to have evidence in order to demonstrate the impact of human actions on a global scale. Source: CBC.

EVIDENCE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, more than two centuries ago, numerous anthropogenic deposits have been accumulated in the earth’s crust, from new minerals and rocks to aluminum, cement and petroleum products such as plastics. Just after these lines, we show the main evidence put forward by researchers to justify the change of epoch:

High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), plastics, fertilizers and pesticides in sediments. The burning of oil, coal and other wood products are the source of large amounts of PAHs in the atmosphere, that they just finally end settling in the earth’s crust and living things.Referring to fertilizers, little abundant nutrients in the soil such as nitrogen and phosphorous have doubled in the last century due to the increasing number of crops, many of which following the intensive model to maximize production. Moreover, plastics are already present worldwide. Its high resistance to degradation prevents natural recycling, which causes large quantities to deposit and, especially, to end in the sea, where there are authentic plastic islands, as the Great Pacific garbage patch .

plastics
Plastic is the most widely-product made from oil on Earth. Its impact on the environment is one of the most serious at present, and  global sedimentation leaves traces of our presence until thousands of years after our disappearance. Source: The Guardian.

Radioactive elements of nuclear tests. The detonation of the atomic bomb called Trinity in 1945 in New Mexico (USA), was followed by a long list of other nuclear tests during the Cold War. As a result, large amounts of carbon-14 and plutonium-239, among other molecules, were released into the atmosphere and sedimented years later in many parts of the globe, constituting a proof of the great human impact on Earth.

sediment
This core, extracted by the geologists that have determined that we are in a new era, shows the accumulation of human origin material in the sediments of a lake in Greenland. In it was found pesticides, radioactive nitrogen, heavy metals, increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and plastics. Source: Science.

High concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere. From 1850 and especially in the following decades, the levels of these gases in the atmosphere broke with the typical pattern of the Holocene, getting itself to achieve, in our century, 400 ppm (parts per million) of CO2, an increase of more of 150 points from the pre-industrial situation. This increase in atmospheric CO2 has a direct impact on the temperature of the Earth. It is believed that the global temperature has increased by around 1 ° C since 1900, and will increase between 1.5 and 3.5 ° C by the year 2100.

aumento-co2
This chart shows the unprecedented increase in CO2, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. Although CO2 is the best known gas and which has the greatest impact on a large scale, the other two gases have greater power to limit heat dissipation into space. The increase of these gases is closely related to the increase of global temperature. Source: CSIRO.

The increase of the ratio of extinction of living organisms in all parts of the world as a result of human activities. Since 1500 the extinction of species by humans has increased, but is from the XIX century onwards when the extinctions are present in the entire planet. The distribution of species has been disrupted due to human activities such as agriculture and deforestation and the introduction of invasive species, causing changes in the habits of native species and often come to displace and even to extinguish. This unprecedented high extinction ratio is considered by many people as an unmistakable symbol that we are in front of the sixth mass extinction on Earth.

ratio-extincion
Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the rate of extinction of vertebrates is 100 times greater than in the past. At this rate, it is estimated that in the following centuries the number of extinct species will reach 75% of the existing ones. The dotted black line in this graph shows the rate of pre-industrialization extinction, while others refer to the cumulative percentage of extinct species since 1500. Source: Science.

FUTURE

Whatever the fate of humanity and future actions undertaken to mitigate climate change, what is clear is that the human footprint will remain indelible in the earth’s surface for millions of years, similar to what occurred after the Permian or Cretaceous mass extincion. The strata will show the follies and excesses carried out by us, perhaps as a warning for the following species that dares to relieve humanity of its status as the dominant species.

REFERENCES

Ricard-anglès